Protein S (PROS1) is glycoprotein and expressed in many cell types supporting its reported involvement in multiple biological processes that include coagulation, apoptosis, cancer development and progression, and the innate immune response. Known receptors bind S1 are ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, DPP4, CEACAM etc.. The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. Most notable is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) glycoprotein alone can mediate the membrane fusion required for virus entry and cell fusion. It is also a major immunogen and a target for entry inhibitors. It's been reported that 2019-nCoV can infect the human respiratory epithelial cells through interaction with the human ACE2 receptor. The spike protein is a large type I transmembrane protein containing two subunits, S1 and S2. S1 mainly contains a receptor binding domain (RBD), which is responsible for recognizing the cell surface receptor. S2 contains basic elements needed for the membrane fusion.The S protein plays key parts in the induction of neutralizing-antibody and T-cell responses, as well as protective immunity.
Coronavirus envelope (E) proteins are short (100 residues) polypeptides that contain at least one transmembrane (TM) domain and a cluster of 2-3 juxtamembrane cysteines. These proteins are involved in viral morphogenesis and tropism, and their absence leads in some cases to aberrant virions, or to viral attenuation. In common to other viroporins, coronavirus envelope proteins increase membrane permeability to ions, plays a central role in virus morphogenesis and assembly. Acts as a viroporin and self-assembles in host membranes forming pentameric protein-lipid pores that allow ion transport. Also plays a role in the induction of apoptosis. Activates the host NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1beta overproduction.
Component of the viral envelope that plays a central role in virus morphogenesis and assembly via its interactions with other viral proteins.